SS 316 & SS 316L / UNS S31600 & UNS S31603 / W.Nr. 1.4401 & 1.4404

316/316L Stainless Steel


316 Stainless Steel and 316L Stainless Steel are a versatile material commonly used in the chemical process industry due to its exceptional resistance to corrosion. This superior performance is due to the presence of molybdenum, which enhances the steel’s ability to resist pitting and general corrosion caused by chloride exposure.

Additionally, the controlled addition of nitrogen to the steel’s composition results in improved strength and durability at high temperatures, making it a reliable choice for applications that require heat resistance. Furthermore, the low carbon content of 316/316L ensures that the steel remains ductile, making it easier to form, weld and fabricate into a wide range of products

Alloy 316/316L Inventory

Product Form Size range from Size range to

Alloy 316/316L pipe

0.5 in 8 in

Alloy 316/316L tube

12 mm 260 mm

Alloy 316/316L pipe fittings

0.5 in 8 in

Alloy 316/316L flanges

0.5 in 8 in

Industries and Applications

Stainless steel 316/316L (also known as Alloy 316/316L), is is a highly versatile and durable type of stainless steel. With its excellent corrosion resistance, high tensile strength, and ability to withstand high temperatures, this alloy has become a popular choice in various industries and applications.

Marine and Coastal Industry: Due to its excellent resistance to corrosion, Stainless steel 316/316L is widely used in the marine and coastal industry. From boat fittings and hardware to marine structures, this alloy is ideal for saltwater applications where other metals may quickly corrode.

Chemical Processing Industry: Stainless steel 316/316L is also used in the chemical processing industry. Its ability to withstand corrosive chemicals, high temperatures, and pressure makes it ideal for use in the production of fertilizers, dyes, and petrochemicals.

Food and Beverage Industry: The food and beverage industry requires materials that are safe for food contact and do not leach harmful chemicals. Stainless steel 316/316L is a popular choice for food processing equipment, as it is non-toxic and does not react with food.

Medical Equipment Industry: The medical equipment industry also requires materials that are safe for use in the human body. Stainless steel 316/316L is used in the manufacture of surgical instruments, implants, and other medical equipment due to its biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance.

Architecture and Construction: Stainless steel 316/316L is also used in the architecture and construction industry. Its strength, durability, and ability to resist corrosion make it ideal for use in building facades, cladding, and other architectural elements.

Resistance to Corrosion

SS 316/316L is a high-performance alloy is specially designed to withstand harsh environments, making it a top choice for industries and applications that require corrosion resistance.

Chloride Resistance: One of the main advantages of Stainless steel 316/316L is its resistance to chloride corrosion. This makes it ideal for use in saltwater environments, such as marine structures and coastal applications.

Acid Resistance: Stainless steel 316/316L is also highly resistant to acids, including sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. This makes it a popular choice for the chemical processing industry, where corrosive chemicals are commonly used.

Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance: The unique composition of Stainless steel 316/316L provides excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion. This makes it ideal for use in harsh environments where other metals may quickly corrode.

High-Temperature Resistance: In addition to its resistance to corrosion, Stainless steel 316/316L is also capable of withstanding high temperatures without losing its strength or durability. This makes it ideal for use in high-heat applications, such as furnace linings and kilns.

Intergranular Corrosion Resistance: Stainless steel 316/316L also has excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion, which occurs when corrosion occurs along the grain boundaries of a metal. This type of corrosion is common in other metals, but Alloy 316/316L is able to resist it due to its unique composition.

Fabrication and Heat Treatment 

Stainless steel 316 (also known as alloy 316 or SS 316) and its low carbon variant, stainless steel 316L, are highly valued for their excellent corrosion resistance and durability. This alloy offers excellent corrosion resistance, high toughness, and good fabricability, making it an ideal choice for a wide range of applications.

Fabrication of Stainless steel 316/316L is quite straightforward, as it has excellent formability and weldability. This alloy can be readily formed into various shapes, including sheets, plates, bars, and tubes, by using conventional fabrication techniques such as bending, punching, cutting, and welding. However, proper heat treatment is necessary to ensure that the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of the material are maintained.

Heat treatment of Stainless steel 316/316L is carried out to modify its microstructure, mechanical properties, and to remove any residual stresses from previous fabrication processes. Annealing is a commonly used heat treatment process that is performed to reduce the hardness and increase the toughness of the material. This is achieved by heating the alloy to a temperature between 1850°F to 2050°F and then cooling it at a slow rate.

Hardening is another heat treatment process that can be used to increase the hardness and strength of Stainless steel 316/316L. This is achieved by heating the material to a temperature between 1475°F and 1550°F, and then cooling it rapidly by quenching. This process can produce a martensitic microstructure that offers high strength and hardness.

316/316L Stainless Steel – Applicable Specifications

Form ASTM ASME Other

316/316L Stainless Steel Sheet & Plate

A240 SA240 N/A

316/316L Stainless Steel Bar

A276 SA276 EN, DIN, JIS

316/316L Stainless Steel Pipe & Tube

A312 SA312 EN 10216-5, NACE MR0175

316/316L Stainless Steel  Fitting

A403 SA403 N/A

316/316L Stainless Steel Forging

A182 SA182 N/A

316/316L Stainless Steel Welding Wire

A580 SA580 N/A

Common Trade Names

Commonly referred to by names such as Alloy 316, Alloy 316L, SS 316, and SS 316L, as well as UNS S31600 and UNS S31603. These alloys have a typical chemical composition of 16.0-18.0% Chromium, 10.0-14.0% Nickel, 2.0-3.0% Molybdenum, and 0.08% Carbon (316) or 0.03% Carbon (316L).

Key Properties

(in annealed condition)

Tensile strength: 70 – 90 ksi
Yield strength: 35 – 45 ksi
Elongation: 40 – 50%
Hardness: 95 – 97 Rockwell B (HRB)


Chemical Composition (%)

Element 316 316L
Carbon 0.08 max 0.03 max
Manganese 2.00 max 2.00 max
Phosphorus 0.045 max 0.045 max
Sulfur 0.030 max 0.03 max
Silicon 1.00 max 1.00 max
Chromium 16.0-18.0 16.0-18.0
Nickel 10.0-14.0 10.0-14.0
Molybdenum 2.0-3.0 2.0-3.0
Nitrogen 0.10 max 0.10 max

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