410 SS / UNS S41000 / W.Nr. 1.4006
410 Stainless Steel
410 Stainless Steel
410 stainless steel is a popular hardenable steel alloy that contains 12% chromium, making it highly resistant to corrosion and heat. It has comparable mechanical properties to the engineering alloy steel AISI 4130, and when heat treated, it offers additional benefits of good corrosion resistance. This makes 410 stainless steel ideal for a wide range of applications, including cutlery, steam and gas turbine blades, valve parts, and pump shafts.
However, when welding 410 stainless steel, it must be given a high preheat of at least 350-400°F and immediately annealed before the weldment cools. Otherwise, the metal may harden, leading to cracking. It is recommended to use matching composition filler metals such as AWS E410 covered electrodes and ER410 bare filler wire or Alloy 82 (AWS ERNiCr-3) filler wire. This nickel alloy accommodates some of the strain that may contribute to cracking in the 410 weldment.
To achieve maximum hardness, heat 410 stainless uniformly to 1200-1400°F, remove it from the furnace, and air cool it. This results in a Brinell hardness of about 187. For maximum softness, heat it to 1500-1650°F, furnace cool it slowly to 1100°F, and air cool it. The Brinell hardness should be approximately 155. To achieve the highest degree of hardness, heat it to 1750-1850°F, soak it at heat, and quench it in oil. Light sections will also harden by air cooling. However, it is important to note that 410 stainless steel will harden to some degree when heated to 1500°F and over unless it is slowly cooled to below the critical temperature. Therefore, it is recommended to soak it at heat for at least one hour, longer for large sections, and air cool it.
Tempering 410 SS in the range of 750-1050°F will result in decreased impact toughness and slightly reduced corrosion resistance. To maintain its properties, it is essential to carefully follow the recommended heating, cooling, and annealing procedures. By doing so, you can ensure that 410 steel will remain a reliable and durable material for your applications.
410 Steel Inventory
|Product Form||Size range from||Size range to|
410 Steel pipe
|0.5 in||8 in|
410 Steel tube
|12 mm||260 mm|
410 Steel pipe fittings
|0.5 in||8 in|
410 Steel flanges
|0.5 in||8 in|
Industries and Applications
410 stainless steel (also know as, 410 SS, UNS S41000) is a versatile and popular material used in a wide range of industries and applications. This hardenable steel alloy contains 12% chromium, which provides excellent corrosion resistance and heat resistance. It has comparable mechanical properties to engineering alloy steel AISI 4130, making it a reliable and durable material for various applications.
One of the primary industries that rely on 410 stainless steel is the cutlery industry. It is a popular choice for knives, scissors, and other cutting tools due to its excellent hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. It is also commonly used in the production of valves, pumps, and shafts in the oil and gas industry due to its ability to withstand high temperatures and corrosive environments.
The aerospace industry also uses 410 stainless steel for its excellent strength-to-weight ratio, high heat resistance, and resistance to atmospheric corrosion. It is used in the production of gas turbine blades, jet engine parts, and aircraft exhaust systems.
In the medical industry, 410 stainless steel is used for surgical instruments due to its corrosion resistance and ability to be easily sterilized. It is also used in the production of dental and orthopedic implants, where its high strength and biocompatibility make it an ideal choice.
Other industries that utilize 410 stainless steel include automotive, construction, and food processing. It is commonly used in the production of mufflers, exhaust systems, and suspension components in the automotive industry. In the construction industry, it is used in the production of structural components, handrails, and balustrades due to its strength and corrosion resistance. In the food processing industry, it is used in the production of equipment and machinery due to its ability to resist corrosion from food acids and salts.
Resistance to Corrosion
One of the most notable features of 410 stainless steel is its corrosion resistance. It is highly resistant to corrosion in mild environments, such as air, fresh water, and some chemicals. Its resistance to corrosion is further enhanced by its ability to be hardened and polished. However, it is not suitable for use in highly acidic or alkaline environments, where it may suffer from localized corrosion.
In addition to its corrosion resistance, 410 stainless steel is also highly resistant to heat. It can withstand temperatures up to 1200°F without losing its mechanical properties, making it suitable for use in high-temperature applications. It is also resistant to scaling and oxidation at high temperatures, further enhancing its ability to withstand extreme conditions.
However, it is important to note that 410 stainless steel is not suitable for use in environments with high concentrations of chlorides or sulfides, such as marine or coastal areas. In such environments, it may suffer from pitting or crevice corrosion, leading to material failure.
To maintain its resistance to corrosion, it is essential to ensure that 410 stainless steel is properly cleaned and maintained. Any contaminants or deposits on the surface of the material may compromise its corrosion resistance. It is also important to avoid using abrasive cleaning agents or tools, which may scratch or damage the surface of the material, leading to corrosion.
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
410 stainless steel can be easily fabricated using standard methods such as welding, machining, and forming. However, it is important to use appropriate equipment and procedures to avoid damaging the material’s surface or reducing its corrosion resistance.
When welding 410 stainless steel, it is important to preheat the material to a high temperature of at least 350-400°F to prevent hardening and cracking. Matching composition filler metals such as AWS E410 covered electrodes and ER410 bare filler wire or Alloy 82 (AWS ERNiCr-3) filler wire are recommended for welding.
Machining 410 stainless steel is also straightforward, although the material’s hardness can make it more difficult to machine than some other alloys. It is important to use sharp cutting tools and proper lubrication to avoid overheating and damaging the material’s surface.
Heat treatment is an essential process for achieving the desired properties in 410 stainless steel. Here are the recommended heat treatment processes for 410 stainless steel:
Annealing: To achieve maximum softness, 410 stainless steel should be heated to 1500-1650°F and then furnace cooled slowly to 1100°F before air cooling. This process will result in a Brinell hardness of approximately 155.
Hardening: 410 stainless steel can be hardened by heating it uniformly to 1200-1400°F, removing it from the furnace, and air cooling it. This process will result in a Brinell hardness of about 187. For the highest degree of hardness, the material can be heated to 1750-1850°F and then quenched in oil. Light sections will also harden by air cooling.
Tempering: Tempering 410 stainless steel in the range of 750-1050°F will result in decreased impact toughness and slightly reduced corrosion resistance. It is important to carefully follow the recommended heating and cooling procedures to achieve the desired properties.
410 Stainless Steel – Applicable Specifications
410 Stainless Steel Bar
|A276, A479||SA276, SA479||EN 10088-3|
410 Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet & Strip
|A240, A480||SA240, SA480||EN 10088-2|
410 Stainless Steel Seamless Pipe
|A268, A731||SA268, SA731||EN 10297-2|
410 Stainless Steel Welded Pipe
410 Stainless Steel Seamless Tube
|A213, A269||SA213, SA269||EN 10216-5|
410 Stainless Steel Welded Tube
|A249, A269||SA249, SA269||EN 10217-7|
Common Trade Names
Common trade names of 410 stainless steel include Type 410, 410S, 410HT, 410HC, 410D, and Durinox 410. These variations of 410 stainless steel are tailored to specific applications, offering improved properties such as increased strength, corrosion resistance, and machinability.
(in annealed condition)
|Tensile strength||65 ksi (450 MPa)|
|Yield strength||30 ksi (205 MPa)|
|Elongation||20% (in 2 inches)|
|Hardness||170-217 HB (Brinell)|
Chemical Composition (%)
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